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CIT RESEARCH

A Bibliography of Reports on CIT, published in the Scholarly Literature from 1999-2015

Compiled by the Research Committee of CIT International, led by Dr. Michael Compton

Police Conceptions of Mental Illness: Labels, Causes, Dangerousness, and Social Distance

Kent State Research Briefing 5


Alan B. McGuire, Ph.D. and Gary R. Bond, Ph.D.

The aim of this study was to assess the degree to which experts agreement on the importance and perceived implementation of the critical elements of CIT.


Improving police response to persons with mental illness: A multi-level conceptualization of CIT

Amy C. Watson, Melissa Schaefer Morabito, Jeffrey Draine, Victor Ottati

A review of the literature on CIT, outlining community level factors likely to influence implementation and effectiveness of CIT

Police Perspectives on Responding to Mentally Ill People in Crisis: Perceptions of Program Effectiveness

Randy Borum, Psy.D.*, Martha Williams Deane, M.A., Henry J. Steadman, Ph.D.,and Joseph Morrissey, Ph.D.

 ..."Calls involving mentally ill people in crisis appear to be frequent and are perceived by most of the officers to pose a significant problem for the department; however, most officers reported feeling well prepared to handle these calls. Generally, officers from the jurisdiction with a specialized team of officers rated their program as being highly effective in meeting the needs of mentally ill people in crisis, keeping mentally ill people out of jail, minimizing the amount of time officers spend on these calls, and maintaining community safety..."


Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Training: Selection Effects and Long-Term Changes in Perceptions of Mental Illness and Community Preparedness

Assessment of how training affects changes in officers’ perceptions of persons with mental illness as well as perceptions of police and the mental health system’s preparedness in addressing their needs. Officers’ confidence in their ability to handle calls involving people with mental illness in crisis increased most over time.

Impact of Diversion Programs on Consumers’ Quality of Life and Depressive Symptomatology

Kent State University    Research Briefing 3

"In this study, we assessed the effects of participating in two diversion programs on the amount of services received and the level of stigma individuals felt. We also assessed the effects of services received and stigma on such long-term consequences as quality of life, depression, and subsequent encounters with the police."


Impact of Diversion Programs on Consumers of Mental Health Services

Kent State University  Research Briefing 2

The main objectives of this research are to determine if, how, and for whom these programs work


The Effect of Crisis Intervention Team Training on Police Disposition of Mental Disturbance Calls

Kent State University   Research Briefing 1

This study examined police dispatch data prior to and after implementation of a CIT program to assess the effect of training on officers’ dispositions of calls.

Use of Force Preferences and Perceived Effectiveness of Actions Among Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Police Officers and Non-CIT Officers in an Escalating Psychiatric Crisis Involving a Subject With Schizophrenia

Michael T. Compton, Berivan N. Demir Neubert , Beth Broussard , Joanne A. McGriff , Rhiannon Morgan , and Janet R. Oliva

This study tested the hypotheses that CIT-trained officers would select a lower level of force, identify nonphysical actions as more effective, and perceive physical force as less effective in an escalating psychiatric crisis, compared with non–CIT-trained officers.


Implementing a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Police Presence in a Large International Airport Setting

Joanne A. McGriff, Beth Broussard, Berivan N. Demir Neubert, Nancy J. Thompson, and Michael T. Compton

Groups discussed special issues pertaining to the implementation of CIT in the airport setting


System- and Policy-Level Challenges to Full Implementation of the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model

JCPN Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations

Several system- and policy-level obstacles can make successful implementation of CIT difficult in many communities. Three such challenges are addressed in this article: insufficient training and policies for dispatchers, poor availability of psychiatric emergency receiving facilities, and complexities related to implementation of CIT in rural settings


JCPN- Overview of De-Escalation Skills in Law Enforcement: Helping Individuals in Crisis While Reducing Police Liability and Injury

Janet Oliva, Rhiannon Morgan and Michael Compton

Police Responses to Mental Health Emergencies-Barriers to Change

Randall Dupont, PhD  & Sam  Cochran, MS

Critical Issues that municipalities face and changes needed in order to implement a Crisis Intervention Team


Building Safer Communities: Improving Police Response to Persons with Mental Illness

Recommendations from the The International Association of Chiefs of Police ( IACP) Policy Summit - June 2010

Summit participants developed multifaceted recommendations for improving police response to persons with mental illness.  A central goal of Summit recommendations summarized in this document is to keep people with mental illness from entering the justice system


Law Enforcement Responses to People with Mental Illness

Reuland, Schwarzfeld & Draper

A Guide to Research Informed Policy and Practice

This guide summarizes the available research encounters with people with mental illnesses and strategies to improve these interactions.


Crisis Intervention Team Training and Special Weapons and Tactics Callouts in an Urban Police Department

Compton, Demir, Oliva and Boyce

This study tested a hypothesized inverse correlation between the number of crisis intervention team (CIT) officers and the number of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) callouts.

Summary of Ohio Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Research

A Comprehensive Review of Extant Research on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Programs

Michael T. Compton, Masuma Bahora, Amy C. Watson and Janet R. Oliva

A Comprehensive Review of Extant Research on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Programs

Berkeley PD: CIT: A Report with Recommendations

CIT:  A Report with Recommendations



Preliminary Evidence of Effects of CIT Training on Self-Efficacy and Social Distance

Masuma Bahora, Sonya Hanafi, Victoria H. chien and Michael T. Compton

This study had two main objectives: (1) To assess perceptions of self-efficacy and desired social distance of control officers and officers entering CIT training with regard to individuals with psychiatric syndromes (depression and schizophrenia) and individuals with substance dependence (alcohol and cocaine), and (2) To examine the effects, if any, of CIT training on self-efficacy and social distance.


CIT International  is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization. 

1310 N 78th Terr. Box 12388 Kansas City, KS 66112

CIT International  is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization. 111 S. Highland St, Box 71, Memphis , Tennessee 38111

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